Scientific Journal of Applied Sciences of Sabratha University <h2>Applied&nbsp; Sciences Biannual Peer Reviewed Journal Issued by Sabratha University</h2> مركز البحوث والاستشارات - جامعة صبراتة en-US Scientific Journal of Applied Sciences of Sabratha University 2708-7298 DEGRADATION OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS BY OZONE IN SYNTHETIC WATER <p>In this research paper, ozone technology is used to eliminate pollutants in water and in wastewater treatment processes. The ozone reactions with the endocrine disrupters were studied at different gas flow rates, initial concentrations of endocrine disrupters, ozone concentrations and pH. The degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2) as single compound was the fastest reaching about 90% removal in almost 5 minutes. However, estrone (E1) degradation was the lowest reaching about 70% removal at the same time. The degradation of mixtures of the endocrine disruptors was found to proceed to lower percentages than individual components at the same conditions. During the multicomponent ozonation of the endocrine disruptors, it was found that 17β-estradiol (E2) converted to estrone (E1) at the beginning of the reaction.</p> Mawaheb M. Zarok Derdar Khaled M. Mezughi Asia A. Meshrghi Shada A. Elalem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 1 12 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.1-12 NEONATAL SEIZURE IN TOBRUCK MEDICAL CENTER <p>Neonatal seizures are the most prominent feature of neurological dysfunction during neonatal period. Seizures in the neonatal population often present differently than in other age groups due to brain immaturity. However, in neonates there may be no clinical movement abnormalityeither because the seizures are subclinical or because they can not be noticed. This study aimed to determine the natural history, the time of onset, the etiological factors, the clinical types, the treatment, and the short-term outcomes of neonatal convulsion. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Tobruck Medical Centre from the 1st of January 2017 to the end of January 2018.During this, 642 neonates were admitted to NICU, out of which 27 had seizures. 17 (62.7%) of the babies were males and 10 (37%) were females. All of them were Libyans; 70.3% were from Tobruck city.</p> Nasren Gamal Saleh Al-Fraik Khadeejah Miftah Ali Al-Khurum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 13 24 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.13-24 THE EFFECT OF REACTANTS' INITIAL TEMPERATURES ON THE RATE CONSTANT AND CONVERSION OF SAPONIFICATION REACTION TAKING PLACE IN A NON-ISOTHERMAL AND NON-ADIABATIC BATCH REACTOR <p>This experimental research studied the saponification reaction of ethyl acetate with sodium hydroxide, which was carried out in a well-agitated non-isothermal and non-adiabatic batch reactor. As no isolation system was provided in this experiment, this study investigated other routes for boosting the reactants conversion. Subsequently, the effect of initial feed temperatures on the reaction rate constant and reaction conversion was assessed. For this purposes, the reaction rates of equimolar reactants were measured when they were heated from 20°C (ambient temperature) to 30°C, 40°C and 50°C. The decrease in the reactants concentrations throughout the reaction durationwas determined at equal time intervals by recording the electrical conductivity data of the reaction mixture. The results were represented graphically for time-conversion, temperature-conversion and temperature-rate constants profiles. They had shown that the reaction rate constant increased with rising of the initial feed temperatures. Even though, the conversion was boosted when the reactants were initially heated above 20°C, no significant change in conversion was achieved between 30, 40, and 50°C. The resulted value of activation energy was about 50 % less than the most accurate published values.</p> Nader Kamal Nasar Adli Omar Alznati Abdulozez Arzoga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 25 33 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.25-33 PERFORMANCE OF MIXED EFFECTS FOR CLUSTERED COUNTING DATA MODELS <p>This article is concerned with hierarchical generalized linear models. It includes generalized linear models and generalized linear mixed models, which are related to linear models.</p> <p>In generalized linear mixed models, the dependent variable and the standard error follow any distribution from the exponential family, e.g. normal, Poisson, binomial, gamma, etc. We studied counting data, and then use the Poisson-gamma model,where the dependentvariable follows the Poisson distribution and the standard error follow the gamma distribution. Several estimation techniques can be used for generalized linear mixed model. In this paperthe hierarchical likelihood estimation technique was used to prove the performance of H-likelihood methodwhen thecounting data were balanced or unbalanced.</p> <p>Real data were used to test the performance of Poisson-gamma H-likelihood estimation method in case of balanced and unbalanced counting data.When real data used in the past research for another problem, it was noticed that the performance of the hierarchical likelihood estimation technique gave a close approximations in the event of balanced and unbalanced counting data, and the output of the technique was approximately equivalent in both instances.</p> Intesar N. El-Saeiti Khalil Mostafa ALsawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 34 41 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.34-41 EVALUATION STUDY OF LANTHANUM HALIDE DETECTORS (LABR3:CE , LACL3:CE, NAI(TL), (HPGE) <p>Through the use of thesources spectrums <sup>22</sup>Na (S311.PH), <sup>60</sup>Co (S297.PH), <sup>133</sup>Ba (S295.PH), <sup>137</sup>Cs (S296.PH) and <sup>152</sup>Eu (S285.PH) the properties of Lanthanum Tri-Bromide (LaBr<sub>3</sub>:Ce) and Lanthanum Tri-Chloride (LaCl<sub>3</sub>:Ce) scintillation detectors were compared against Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)) scintillation and Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) semiconductor detectors. In all instances the HPGe detector was found to be superior, So, Hyper Pure Germanium detectors (HPGe) are outstanding devices for radioactivity spectroscopy. In addition the LaBr<sub>3</sub>:Ce and LaCl<sub>3</sub>:Ce detectors were always found to be superior to the NaI(Tl) detector.</p> Karima Abdulla Abtisam A. Alakrout Manal Omer Samah Aghtisa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 42 52 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.42-52 PRIMARY INVESTIGATION ON POTENTIAL INTERACTION OF AN ER: YAG LASER SYSTEM WITH SKIN <p>Lasers are becoming widely used in medicine due to their beneficial effects such as: coagulation properties (less postoperative bleeding). As an alternative, lasers produce invisible infrared light at a wavelength of 2.940 nm which is ideal for absorption by hydroxylapatite and water. Therefore, they can be used for the treatment of both soft and hard tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate the interaction between the laser systems with power 15 W and pulse repletion rate up to 1 KHz on chicken skin at various irradiation parameters with distance 10 cm. A beam delivery unit, a focusing camera and a computer controlled stepper unit with sample holder to move the sample while irradiation with different laser parameter were used in this study. After irradiation and to inspect skin geometry and damage light microscopy, image analysis and laser scanning microscopy were used. It was noticed that the surface of the skin was slightly damaged with depth up to 3 mm and width about 200mm. This damage disappeared after few minutes of irradiation. In conclusion, the experiment demonstrated that the Er:YAG-laser system is an efficient tool for studying the interaction between the skin and laser in terms of use in treatment of skin problems. The results also show that when the number of pulses increases the depth of the laser becomes more and the damage increases as well. Further research, including controlled clinical and research studies, to investigate the higher efficacy, as well as side effects of laser therapy, is needed.</p> Sana M. balleg Iman M. Amesawi Abtisam A. Alakrout ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 53 61 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.53-61 A COMPARISON OF FLUORESCENCE AND ULTRAVIOLET DETECTORS USING THE RP–HPLC TECHNIQUE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE (TRM-HCl): A CASE STUDY OF AL-BAYDA CITY, LIBYA <p>A fast and sensitive chromatographic RP–HPLC technique for examining tramadol hydrochloride (TRM-HCl) in tablets through using fluorescence detection (FL-D) and ultraviolet detection (UV-D) is reported in this paper. The separation was carried out using the reverse phase method on a Brownlee BIO C18 analytical column with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile (2.5:7.5 v/v), which was pumped with an isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The LOD and LQD values obtained in the current study indicate that FL-D is more sensitive, and hence preferable to UV detectors in the quantification of TRM-HCl tablets over the entire concentration range used (5-125 µg/ml). The study showed that the mean percentage recoveries from five samples were 99.93-100.023% (FL-D), which is somewhat similar to that of the UV-D (99.93-100.028). In conclusion, although Fl-D is acceptable for the quantification of tramadol tablets, UV-D offers higher detection sensitivity and reproducibility, particularly within concentrations that are low in the deposit collectors.</p> Noreldin S. Y. Abdolla Suad K. Omar Ibrahim H. Habib Hana S. Mohamed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 62 76 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.62-76 THE CORROSION PROBLEMS IN HOUSEHOLD WATER HEATERS OF SABRATHA CITY <p>The corrosion destructive action can reach the home of millions of people, thus costing a tremendous amount of money and causing a great inconvenience. With the up rise of brackish water in Sabratha city, corrosion can damage water heaters, pipe network, refrigerators and many more items found at homes. In addition, in the absence of adequate specifications, major failures of water heaters have been reported in the recent years creating a great deal of concern. This study investigated the reasons of water heaters failure, and the methods needed to overcome or limit such a problem.</p> <p>Three main components, which have a direct relationship with the corrosion phenomena of heaters, were studied namely water, heater storage tank and heating element cover. To achieve that a chemical analysis of water samples and an examination of the microstructure and the chemical composition of heater storage tank and the heating element cover were carried out. The results revealed that the likelihood of forming a scale of Ca CO<sub>3 </sub>increases with increasing temperature, salt concentrations and the PH value.</p> <p>The metallographic examination showed the presence of a ferrite-pearlite structure. The microstructural studies revealed the presence of un-equivalent distribution of carbon content responsible for galvanic corrosion. They also revealed that grain growth in Heat Affective Zone (H. A. Z.) was responsible for pitting type corrosion. The weld showed typical WIDMANSTAATEN structure. Chemical composition of the sample indicated that the structure belongs to the low carbon steel which is identical to ASM 1020, and that the cover of heating element is made of pure copper.</p> Khalid H. Almadhoni Mohammad A. Ammar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 77 90 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.77-90 GROWTH INHIBITORY EFFECT OF CHLORHEXIDINE AND HEXETIDINE CONTAINING-MOUTHWASHES AGAINST ORAL BACTERIAL ISOLATES <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Frequent use of mouthwash (MW) is one of the most effective methods used to prevent oral bacterial infections and to assist individuals in their efforts to achieve and maintain better oral health. Using a MW containing antibacterial agents would be a simple way to prevent growth and multiplication of pathogenic organisms in oral cavity causing dental caries and other mouth diseases. Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Hexetidine (HX) have been proposed as potent biocides against oral bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p>The present study was performed to investigate oral bacteria growth inhibition when using any of four mouthwashes that are commercially available in the Libyan market and contain either CHX, (<em>Zordy l</em>and <em>Oraxin</em>), or HX, (<em>Hextril </em>and <em>Givalex</em>), and to clarify whether CHX and HX were suitable and safe biocides that can be included in mouthwash products.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p> <p>Sixty adult (45 females and 15 males) volunteers had been chosen and divided into four groups and their saliva samples were assessed for microbial count at the beginning and the end of two weeks of treatment, during which they rinsed with 15ml of mouthwashes for 30 seconds twice a day (morning and evening) in addition to their usual oral hygiene procedures. The antibacterial activity of mouthwashes was assayed by cell viable count technique and cell diffusibility measurement.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The results showed wide variations in the effectiveness of mouthwashes; those containing CHX were more effective (P ≤0.05) than formulations containing HX on oral microbial count. The main findings of the present study were that <em>Zordyl</em>, <em>Oraxin</em>and <em>Hextril </em>exerted high effects on the salivary microbiota, causing 90%, 60% and 34% reduction in salivary bacterial counts respectively. 25% reduction was observed for <em>Givalex</em>. On the other hand, the zone of inhibition test showed that <em>Zordyl</em> and <em>Oraxin</em> had large zone inhibitory effects, while <em>Hextril</em> and <em>Givalex</em>, were less effective on some bacterial species.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>It can be concluded that twice daily use of CHX mouthwash (CHX-MW) or HX mouthwash (HX-MW) reduces oral bacterial load counts in healthy subjects when used as an adjunct to their normal oral hygiene procedures. This also suggests that inhibitory power of mouth washes containing CHX is greater on oral bacteria than mouthwashes containing HX.</p> Ibtesam O. Amer Raja M. Moman Mustafa M. Gebreil Mohamed R. Alsagher ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 91 102 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.91-102 استخدام المخلفات البلاستيكية (قناني ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ) كمحسن لخواص مارشال للخلطة الإسفلتية <p>Libya has a relatively mild climate to the north and a desert climate (hot - dry) to the south، where desert climates are characterized by high temperature and low rainfall as well as the large temperature changes between night and day. Therefore، there were many problems in paving، which resulted in poor performance of flexible pavement in road projects in these areas. The most important of these problems is the early hardening of the asphalt، resulting in early cracks that lead to the early collapse of the pavement.</p> <p>Due to the futility of maintenance operations on some of the damaged roads، it was necessary to find alternative techniques to address this phenomenon. Hence the idea of adding materials for asphalt or asphalt mix to develop and improve their performance.</p> <p>The use of waste materials in asphalt pavement is useful for finding an alternative solution to increase its age and reduce environmental pollution as well as reduce the economic cost of road construction and maintenance cost. One of these wastes is polyethylene water bottles produced in large quantities. In this work، polyethylene terephthalate was used to verify the possibility of using polyethylene water terephthalate as a polymer added to the asphalt mixture to overcome pavement problems. Five different percentages of plastic water bottles (4%، 6%، 8%، 10% and 12%) were added to the optimum asphalt weight for Marsh preparation For. The results indicated the optimum improvement content to be (8%) for waste water bottles improved for asphalt mixtures where it was found to give maximum stability، rigidity، asphalt-filled spaces، and minimum air voids، compared to the improved mix.</p> م. كمال الطاهر البكوش د. محمد خليفة علي ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 103 117 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.103-117 تأثير الشكل البياني للدالة على نتائج التكامل العددي المحدود للدوال الرياضية <p>This paper view shed light on the graph of the function and its effect on results of limited numerical integration. Where it was taken four limited integrals to know the effect the graph of the function on the results of the limited integration، the first example is exponential function، the second example and third example are periodic triangle functions.</p> <p>These functions are drawn by using Graph program، and we calculated these integrals using the direct mathematical method. Then we solved theses integrals using three numerical methods:&nbsp; Trapezoidal rule، Simpson's rule، Romberg rule.</p> <p>We calculated the absolute errors for these examples in order to make a comparison between the results using direct and numerical methods the results were rounded to four decimal places after the comma.</p> <p>The results were written in tabular format to facilitate comparison، to compute the numerical integration of the periodic functions we found the Romberg method gives very accurate results if all the values (x، y) located in the first quarter the results of the numerical integral are very accurate and their convergence with the real values of the integration is the best، after that comes Trapezoidal method.</p> د. هناء المنير أحمد لوكه أ. منى السنوسي محمد أبو بكر ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 118 138 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.118-138 تأثير العلائق المحتوية على قشور البطاطا على الأداء الإنتاجي وبعض صفات الذبيحة والأعضاء الداخلية في ذكور زغاليل الحمام <p>This experiment was conducted to study the effect of adding different levels of potato peel meal to the production performance and some characteristics of the carcass and the internal organs in the squab male pigeons. where it used 15 squabs male from domestic pigeon with one month age, it was randomly divided three treatments (5birdes/treatment), then each treatment was divided into 5 replicates (5birdes/replicate). All groups were fed free nutrition on diets closely related to their protein and energy content. potato peel was added to the diets by 10%، 20%. The feeding of the three groups lasted for a period of 30 day. some productive characteristics were calculated such as final weight، daily and total weight gain, the amount of feed consumption, the food conversion factor. At the end of the experiment, all birds were slaughtered and some of the characteristics of the carcass were studied, which include: weight after slaughter, weight after feathering, weight of carcass without entrails, weight of viscera, weight of front and back quarters, percentage of clearance, as well as weight of some internal organs such as heart, liver, spleen, kidney, gizzard, legs and head.</p> <p>The results indicated that there was a significant (P&lt;0.05) effect of potato peel by a percentage 10%, 20% in some studied productive traits, which increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in the final weight, the total weight increase, and the food conversion factor, while there was no significant erosion in the daily weight increase and amount of feed consumption. The results also indicated that there was a significant (P&lt;0.05) effect of potato peel in some traits after slaughtering, while there was no significant illness in weight by number, feathering, carcass weight without guts, weight of front and back quarters, percentage of clearance, as well as potato peel in the diet had no significant effect. In the proportions of the eaten and non eaten parts.&nbsp;</p> د. مجيد محمد جبريل ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 139 148 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.139-148 دراسة ومحاكاة توليد الطاقة الكهربائية باستخدام طاقة الرياح بمنطقة مطار طرابلس الدولي- ليبيا <p>The use of wind to generate electricity in the Tripoli International Airport region of Libya has been studied and simulated. The availability of wind turbines varies from location to location, depending on the wind source and speed, as well as the type of turbines (horizontal axis turbine and vertical axis turbine), the starting speed and the shutdown speed.</p> <p>The availability of wind turbines can be predicted using the methodology used in the mathematical model used in this research. In this research, the above-mentioned variables were examined during a statistical model, using the average monthly wind speed data available to the airport meteorology team for 2008 and 2009.</p> <p>Results showed that increasing the height of the turbine axle will improve the availability. The study found that the availability is better when using the horizontal axis turbine versus the vertical axis turbine, and the availability value improves the lower the cut in speed, while the availability value remains constant even if the cut-out speed is high.</p> أ. نافع أحمد البُهلى أ. محمد محمود الحنيش د. طارق أحمد الصالح ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 149 162 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.149-162 مسببات فقر الدم عند النساء الليبيات الحوامل المترددات على قسم النساء والولادة بمستشفى صبراتة التعليمي <p>Most pregnant women suffer from anemia disorders, which is a global health dilemma. It affects large numbers of people annually, targeting all ages and among the most vulnerable groups to anemia pregnant women due to the increased amount of blood produced by the body. These disorders contribute to increasing the severity of the disease during pregnancy for both the mother and the fetus, and the symptoms of these disorders are felt by the pregnant woman with several symptoms, including fatigue, fatigue, dizziness, persistent headache and other symptoms. Anemia is widespread in Libya as it is considered one of the most common reasons that Hospitalize in the Department of Women and Childbirth at the Sabratha Teaching Hospital.&nbsp; It is considered one of the most common causes of anemia with a high rate as it is estimated at 50% because iron has a role in the production of hemoglobin resulting from malnutrition and exhausting work, repeated childbirth.&nbsp; This study conducted a survey of 100 cases housed in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at Sabratha Teaching Hospital, over a year of (May 2018 - April 2019). This paper investigates the cause of anemia among pregnant women and compares these results with several studies conducted in other regions of the world. The SPSS statistical program was used to study and analyze the results. The results showed that the cause of the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women is due to an imbalance in the production of hemoglobin and red blood cells, due to a deficiency of iron during pregnancy. According to obtained results, recommendations were made to reduce this disease.</p> فتحية العارف المحجوبي انتصار على محمد التومي فوزية إمحمد قويدر اسمهان العربي الفرد ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 163 178 10.47891/sabujas.v3i2.163-178