Scientific Journal of Applied Sciences of Sabratha University <h2>Applied&nbsp; Sciences Biannual Peer Reviewed Journal Issued by Sabratha University</h2> en-US (د. طارق الصالح) (د . عادل الغابر) Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION AND BIOMASS OF MACROALGAE IN THE INTERTIDAL ROCKY SHORE OF TAJURA, LIBYA <p>This study was an initial step toward understanding the qualitative and quantitative of macro-algae in the intertidal rocky shore of Tajura. In total, 24 species of macro-algae (6 Chlorophyta, 6 Phaeophyceae, and 12 Rhodophyta) were identified in the intertidal zone. All species were distributed to one or two of the three levels (high tide, mid tide, and low tide) except <em>U. Linza</em>, <em>U. lactuca</em>, <em>C. compressa</em>, <em>H. muscifarmus</em>, <em>L. obtuse</em>, and <em>J. rubens</em> which, were found in each level of the intertidal zones. Both mid and low tide was the main habitats for the growth, and abundance of seaweeds, most of them belonging to Rhodophyta. In contrast, high tide was less diversity and biomass, with a complete absence of Phaeophyceae. The total biomass in the study area was 158 g dw/m<sup>2</sup>, whereas Rohdophyta had the highest biomass (94.8 g dw/m<sup>2</sup>). In addition, the biomass showed a clear difference between the three levels; the highest biomass (317.9g dw/m2) was observed in the low tidal zone and the lowest biomass (57.16g dw/m<sup>2</sup>)was observed in the high tidal zone. Finally, the annual dominant species by biomass in the intertidal rocky shore of Tajura were <em>C. compressa</em> (36.8g dw/m<sup>2</sup>) and <em>L. obtusa</em> (24.7g dw/m<sup>2</sup>).</p> Abdulfattah Elfituri, Rania Kafu, Hana Abohbell, Najla Abushaala ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 AWARENESS OF ORAL CANCER AMONG GENERAL PUBLIC IN LIBYA: AQUESTIONNAIRE-BASED SURVEY <p>Cancer is a major health problem in both developed and developing countries. Fighting against cancer require health care professionals to be well trained in diagnosing as well as organizing public education programs. This study is to evaluate public knowledge of oral cancer risk factors, and to assess their awareness of oral cancer examination. A questionnaire was designed to collect information about awareness of oral cancer, knowledge of conditions associated with alcohol and tobacco use, perception of risks of oral cancer, and subjects’ attitude twards oral cancer screening. 122 participates (57.4% females and 42.6% males) had responded to the questionnaire. The responses revealed that 64% have heard about oral cancer and that media was the common source of information (59%). Some participants (35.2%) believe that oral cancer is preventable whilst 54.0% of the participants pointed that they do not know. More than 45.1% of the respondents were aware that smoking is a risk. 23.7% of the respondents considered sore lesions in mouth that does not heal as an early sign of oral cancer. To sum up, there is unawareness of the unhealthy habits, signs, and symptoms of oral cancer. Education programs can be carried out through mass media means raise awareness of such issues.</p> Karima Ali Belgasem, Salma Mohammed Salem ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 DETECTION AND EXTRACTION OF HUMAN BRAIN TUMOR FROM MRI IMAGE USING IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUE <p>The Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) is usually associated with impurity and noise that should be removed by the application of image processing technique.</p> <p>In this study, four stages of image processing technique have been used. At the preprocessing stage, the MRI image was converted to grayscale and the noise was decreased by using a high pass filter. At the enhancement stage, an anisotropic filter was applied to the image to improve the MRI contrast and to remove the noise. At the segmentation stage, the threshold algorithm was used to segment the MRI image. The final stage was applying the morphological operation to the segmented image which allowed the detection and bounding of the tumor in a pure form, as well as forming the contour around the tumor region and thereby separating it from the brain. The area and the execution time of each tumor studied were calculated. When there was no tumor on the MRI image of the brain, the morphological operation provided a sign of its absence. In this study, MATLAB2015a was applied to all stages of image processing technique.</p> Rebah Daw Sarreb, Adel Dea Elgaber ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 EFFECTS OF VINEGAR ACID ON THE DUODENUM TISSUES IN RATS. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES <p>The study aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes on the duodenum tissues induced by vinegar acid (VA) at a dose of 1 ml/kg/day (5 % and 10 %) in female rats for two weeks. Thirty rats were used, they were divided into three groups, the first group was given distilled water as the control group, the second group was given VA with a dose [1 ml/kg (5 %)] and the third group was given VA with a dose [1 ml/kg (10 %)] for two weeks. Histopathological statement of the duodenum tissues showed many vacuolations in epithelial cells, decrease in the number of goblet cells, erosion of mucosal epithelium, inflammatory cells infiltration in lamina propria, and submucosal oedema in all treated groups. Although that the histochemical study with PAS-reaction and bromophenol blue technique showed a decrease in the carbohydrate content and protein content in treated rats as compared with the control group. In conclusion, this study showed that vinegar acid was a harmful agent associated with histopathological changes that caused acute duodenum lesions and ulcers.</p> Eda M. A. Alshailabi, Hana M. Asrafiel, Ahmed S. H. Ahmeedah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 DISTRIBUTION OF ABO AND RHESUS BLOOD GROUP PHENOTYPES AMONG BLOOD DONORS AT AL- QAEEM HOSPITAL IN THE WEST OF IRAQ <p>International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes.</p> <p>Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system ABO, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. The study and knowledge of blood groups is necessary for the purpose of dealing with blood diseases, which are still in the research stage.</p> <p>ABO blood group antigens are the most immunogenic followed by Rhesus (D antigen). The frequency distribution of blood groups are varies among different regions and races of the world. This study aims to identify the frequency distribution of ABO blood group and rhesus factors within males and females blood donors in Al- Qaeem City in the west of Iraq.</p> <p>Rhesus blood group system (Rh) Blood can be either RhD positive or RhD negative. Total 565 samples , includes 300 male with 265 female were analyzed.</p> Qutaiba K. J. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 THE EFFECTS OF DESIGN PARAMETERS AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON THE CREEP LIFE OF HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE (HPT) BLADE-INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINE ENGINE <p>Peak load operation requires gas turbines to operate at high firing temperature, which consequently reduces the useful lives of components. This paper studies the quantitative relationship between gas turbine power setting and the hot gas-path components’ life consumption. To achieve this purpose, a 165MW gas turbine engine was modelled and investigated in this study. A comparative lifing model, which performs stress and thermal analyses, estimates the minimum creep life of components using the parametric Larson Miller method. This lifing model was integrated with in-house performance simulation software to simulate the engine performances at design point and off-design conditions. The results showed that the combined effect of the operating environment and power demand could have significant impact on blade creep life. Predicting this impact will aid gas turbine users in the decision-making processes associated with gas turbine operation.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Wanis A.E.M Elatod, Abdo-Almonaim S.M. Alghlam, Tarak Assaleh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 DURABILITY PERFORMANCE PREDICTION USING ANALYTICAL MODELING <p>Temperature and humidity (hygro-thermal) cycles degrade composite strengthening materials by changing the properties of based material due to plasticization and hydrolysis. Although there is no comprehensive mechanistic modeling of the hygro-thermal effect on durability/life-prediction including temperature, relative humidity, aging of exposure, and cycle periods, fairly precise predictions can be made through the sensible use of an equation based on micro mechanics and semi-empirical approaches that are based on extensive prior experimental testing results. This paper includes equations related to the prediction of hygro-thermal effects, and then describes the predicting results on long-term strength of concrete that exposed to various environmental conditions. William-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation was employed here to develop the shift factor for regular concrete, which is exposed to different environmental conditions. The shift factors were determined empirically on basis of previous experimental test results.</p> Dr. Najeb Hasan Sawsi, Mahmod Tayb yahya, Dr. Mohamed Elarbi Mahrorug ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 مدى الاستفادة التغذوية والصحية لمرضى ارتفاع ضغط الدم من جدول الحقائق الغذائية على العبوات الغذائية بمنطقة وادي الشاطئ <p>This study was conducted to know the extent of nutritional and health benefits of nutritional facts table on food packages by hypertensive patients in Wadi Al-Shati region. A questionnaire, based on Triple Likert scale, was used to collect data which were analyzed by SPSS program.</p> <p>The results showed that the extent of nutritional and health benefits from the nutritional facts table is with an average of 61.65%. The study also reported that males benefit more than females. Compared to married participants, single participants recorded the highest benefits from the nutritional facts table. According to age, 18 – 29 benefited more than the other age groups.</p> <p>It has also been noticed that the benefit degree increases as the educational level increases; the above-university educational qualification participants were the most benefited then comes the university qualification participants group. According to career, the results have showed that unemployed individuals had the highest benefits, followed by the engineers, then the teaching staff and the medical professionals. In terms of income, it has been noticed the higher the monthly income, the higher benefit degree. In addition, the findings of the study showed that the individuals who had high blood pressure disease for less than a year benefited more than the other subjects whereas the least were the individuals who had blood pressure for more than 10 year. According to body mass index, the most benefited from the nutritional facts table were those of normal weight, 62%. The statistical analysis of the questionnaire showed that most of the participants did not benefit from the nutritional facts table, and accordingly the study concludes that the participants may not have the ability to use the nutritional facts table.</p> محمود إمريمي, تغريد أحمد, منى الويفة ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 الاضطرابات اللغوية وعلاقتها بالشعور بالعزلة الاجتماعية لدى طلاب مركز الأمل للصم وضعاف السمع بالزاوية <p>Language disorders and hearing disability are among the most common disabilities that clearly affect the personality of the individual. Social isolation is only a result of those disabilities that have spread widely in our society.</p> <p>This study aims to find out the relationship between language disorders and social isolation. It was conducted on a sample of students of Al-Amal Center for the Deaf and Hard Hearing in Al-Zawiya, Libya. The population was 30 males and 10 females whose age was10 - 15 years, and their IQ was 100 – 110. The aud iometry degree was 60 dB and more. The sample consisted of 2 males and 3 females.</p> <p>Social Isolation Scale and Language Disorder Test were used.The results revealed that there is a negative correlation between language disorders and social isolation.</p> عبدالسلام سالم مسعود البوسيفي ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200